INTERNET'S ONLY ENGLISH-SINDHI DICTIONARY TO USE THE DEVANAGARI SCRIPT

  1. Steets and Sindhi
  2. Using Steets
  3. Sindhi Basics
    1. Numbers
    2. Days of the Week
    3. Seasons
  4. The Devanagari Script
  5. About Steets
  6. External Links
  7. References


Steets and Sindhi

Sindhi is the world's 43rd most spoken language with over 21 million speakers worldwide [1]. It is the language of the Sindh region, which currently lies in Pakistan and is an officially recognised language in both India and Pakistan.

Historically, numerous different scripts were used to write Sindhi. However, at present only two scripts are officially recognised. The Arabic script, also used to write Urdu, was adopted for Sindhi in 1852 and is presently considered the standard script for writing Sindhi [2]. It is recognised in India and Pakistan. The Devanagari script, used for writing Hindi, Marathi, Nepali, as well as various other Indian languages, was introduced for Sindhi in 1948 by the Indian government and is official only in India [3]. Due to the broad range of sounds present in Sindhi, both the Arabic and Devanagari scripts had to be modified to be able to accurately represent all the spoken vowels and consonants.

Steets presents Sindhi using the Devanagari script and provides a transliteration into the Roman alphabet for the benefit of users unable to read Devanagari or those with computers unable to render Indic text. Devanagari is the primary script used in India and, hence, by the Sindhi speakers from India or with an Indian background.

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Using Steets

The Steets home page is the default dictionary page and shows the Sindhi definitions for a random English word with each visit. To search the dictionary simply type your word in the search box, select 'English to Sindhi' or 'Sindhi to English' and click on the 'search'. If using the 'Sindhi to English' option, the word(s) to look-up must be entered in Devanagari. Search results will be shown using the Devanagari script followed by a Roman transliteration. If no results are found, or if they are not what you were looking for, submit a word to help improve the dictionary. Note that Steets uses British English; American spellings can be used in the search box although results will always display British spelling.

The transliteration feature is also available separately. In this case, only Devanagari-to-Roman is currently available; Roman-to-Devanagari is being looked into. The tables in the Devanagari Script section are used for the automated transliteration and, as such, the inherent schwa vowel is automatically inserted even when not required at the end of many words. Transliteration is not language specific and works for any text written in the basic Devanagari script with added support for the extra Sindhi consonants.

Your browser must be able to render Indic text and Unicode characters to display this website correctly. Being able to input Devanagari is also required to use the Sindhi-to-English dictionary and the Devanagari-to-Roman transliteration. Wikipedia provides an Indic support page with help on correctly displaying and inputting Indic text using different operating systems [8].

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Sindhi Basics

Numbers

EnglishSindhi
NumeralsWordsNumeralsWords
1oneहिक hika
2twoब॒ b̤a
3threeटे ṭe
4fourचारि chāri
5fiveपंज paṅja
6sixछह chhaha
7sevenसत sata
8eightअठ aṭha
9nineनव nava
10ten१०द॒ह d̤aha
11eleven११यारहं yārahaṅ
12twelve१२बा॒रहं b̤ārahaṅ
13thirteen१३तेरहं terahaṅ
14fourteen१४चोद॒हं chod̤ahaṅ
15fifteen१५पंदरहं paṅdarahaṅ
16sixteen१६सोरहं sorahaṅ
17seventeen१७सतिरहं satirahaṅ
18eighteen१८अरिड़हं ariṛahaṅ
19nineteen१९उणवीह uṇavīha
20twenty२०वीह vīha
30thirty३०टीह ṭīha
40forty४०चालीह chālīha
50fifty५०पंजाह paṅjāha
60sixty६०सठि saṭhi
70seventy७०सतरि satari
80eighty८०असी asī
90ninety९०नवे nave
100hundred१००सउ sau
1 000thousand१ ०००हज़ार hazāra
100 000hundred thousand१ ०० ०००लख lakha
1 000 000million१० ०० ०००द॒ह लख d̤aha lakha
10 000 000ten million१ ०० ०० ०००करोड़ karoṛa

Days of the week

EnglishSindhi
Mondayसूमर sūmara
Tuesdayमंगल maṅgala
Wednesdayबु॒धर b̤udhara
Thursdayविस्पति vispati
Fridayजुमो jumo
Saturdayछंछर chhaṅchhara
Sundayआरितवार āritavāra

Seasons

EnglishSindhi
Springबहार bahāra
Summerऊन्हारो ūnhāro
Autumnसरउ sarau
Winterसियारो siyāro

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The Devanagari Script

The Devanagari script is most distinctively recognised by the horizontal line on top of each word. A continuous line groups syllables into a single word and each syllable is made up of either a vowel or a consonant and vowel. Where a vowel is not specified, the consonant takes the अ vowel automatically, known as the schwa vowel [5], e.g. क would be transliterated as ka rather than just k. Each letter in the Devanagari script has a single unique sound. Whereas in English the letter a may be used to represent various different sounds (ambulance, acre, water, etc.), the Devanagari अ can only be used to represent the a sound as heard in the word America. There is no distinction between capital and small-case letters.

Standard Devanagari has 10 main vowels and 33 unique consonants. Added to this list are various compound letters and diacritic marks to add even more variation to the allowable sounds. The Sindhi variation of Devanagari adds an additional four consonants, created by adding a diacritical bar underneath the standard consonant (ग॒, ज॒, ड॒/द॒, ब॒), to represent the implosive sounds unique to the language.

The tables below list all Devanagari letters used in Sindhi and provide an equivalent representation using the Roman alphabet. These tables are used for the automated transliteration throughout Steets and are based on the Hunterian system but modified with diacritical marks. The Hunterian system in its official form as adopted by the Government of India does not use any diacritics which makes it impossible to distinguish between certain letters, such as द and ड or त and ट. Steets therefore adds the suggested diacritic marks [4] to make each letter unique, as intented by the Devanagari script. An example using English words is also provided where an exact equivalent exists to help ensure the correct pronunciation as a single letter in English can have many different sounds. British pronunciation rules are used to find equivalents.

Vowels

DevanagariRomanExample
independentwith consonant (क)
aAmerica
काāarm
किiigloo
कीīcheese
कुubook
कूūboot
केe
कैaiextra
कोo
कौauoral
कृṛĭ
कॄṟĭ

Consonants

DevanagariRomanExample
kkilo
kh
ggoal
gh
chbeach
chh
jjet
jh
ñ
ṭh
ḍh
t
th
d
dh
nNovember
pport
ph
bbat
bh
mmilk
yyou
r
lleaf
v
shshine
ṣh
ssand
hheat
diacritic additions
q
k͟h
g͟h
ṛh
ffox
zZen
झ़zhpleasure
conjuncts
क्षkṣh
त्रtr
ज्ञgy
श्रshr
Sindhi specific
ग॒
ज॒
ड॒ or द॒
ब॒

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About Steets

Steets was conceived in 2012 by an Indian-Sindhi from Spain who, when having to speak in Sindhi with relatives, at times could not find the correct words to express himself as desired. The wide proliferation of online dictionaries and translators for the most common languages, but the lack of any such tool for Sindhi, especially in the Devanagari script, prompted the development of this website.

The name Steets was originally an acronym for Sindhi-To-English, English-To-Sindhi. The main sources used during the development of Steets include an old pocket English-Sindhi dictionary passed down the family, Cambridge Dictionaries Online [6] and Wiktionary [7]. Due to various factors including the age and apparent average quality of the main source as well as the limited knowledge of the author in the Sindhi language, specifically regarding grammar and spelling, it is likely that there may be errors in some of the translations.

If you find any errors, or if you have any comments or suggestions, please use the contact form to get in touch.

Steets is an ad-supported website, please refrain from using ad blocking software to keep this website alive.

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External Links

  • Sindhi Sangat
    Promoting & preserving the unique Sindhi heritage, culture & language, Sindhi Music, Sindhi Movies, Learn Sindhi, Sindhi Surhaan TV


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References

[1] Ethnologue, Languages of the World.
[2] Omniglot - Sindhi alphabets, pronunciation and language.
[3] UCLA Language Materials Project.
[4] Wikipedia - Hunterian transliteration.
[5] Wikipedia - Devanagari.
[6] Cambridge Dictionaries Online.
[7] Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
[8] Wikipedia Help: Multilingual support (Indic).


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